The Alps have been crossed for war and commerce, and by pilgrims, students and tourists. Le choronyme « Alpes » qui définit lensemble de la chaîne apparaît dès le Ier siècle av. Or, normalement, c'est cette neige qui fond l'été qui sert à alimenter les rivières ». You will go through the massifs of Hautes-Alpes : Serre-Ponçon, Embrunais, Guillestrois, Queyras, Pays des écrins, Briançonnais… This guide contains for each tour maps from the French Geographical Institute, as well as clear and detailed descriptions, useful information and numerous pictures. Rhône-Alpes is a major European transit hub, linking northern France and Europe to the Mediterranean area. GO TO SNOW REPORTS. Some of the French dialects spoken in the French, Swiss and Italian alps of Aosta Valley derive from Arpitan, while the southern part of the western range is related to Old Provençal; the German dialects derive from Germanic tribal languages. sources des données : Encyclopædia Britannica, Banque mondiale, Programme des Nations unies pour le développement. flights. Sign up for Ski Europe newsletter to receive special deals and group trip … Below are listed the 29 "four-thousanders" with at least 300 m (984 ft) of prominence. The lowest zone is the colline zone, which exists between 500 and 1,000 m (1,600 and 3,300 ft), depending on the location. The climate, plant life and animal life vary among the different sections or zones of the mountains. [93], Celtic tribes settled in Switzerland between 1500 and 1000 BC. In the early years of the "golden age of alpinism" initially scientific activities were mixed with sport, for example by the physicist John Tyndall, with the first ascent of the Matterhorn by Edward Whymper being the highlight. Pyrénées. Europe. map. [89] Spiders, such as the large wolf spider, live above the snow line and can be seen as high as 400 m (1,300 ft). L'Europe est montrée comme une aire culturelle au sens large. Photos & Videos; Offres; Informations sur l'hôtel; Carte; … [49], High levels of precipitation cause the glaciers to descend to permafrost levels in some areas whereas in other, more arid regions, glaciers remain above about the 3,500 m (11,483 ft) level. With comprehensive destination gazetteer, … Situées au contact des civilisations latines, germaniques et slaves, elles ont étroitement été associées à leur expansion. Les distances sont indiquées sur cette carte. North America USA California Nebraska Massachusetts Ohio New York North Carolina Connecticut South Carolina Minnesota Alaska Kentucky Rhode Island Illinois Indiana Maine Arizona Nevada … The Alps[a] are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,[b][2] and stretch approximately 1,200 km (750 mi) across eight Alpine countries (from west to east): France, Switzerland, Monaco, Italy, Liechtenstein, Austria, Germany, and Slovenia. The later indeed became very popular after the construction of a paved road ordered by Napoléon Bonaparte. Selon des études du Giec, sous l'effet du réchauffement climatique, les glaciers alpins ont perdu entre 20 et 30 % de leur volume depuis 1980. [112], Charles VII of France ordered his chamberlain to climb Mont Aiguille in 1356. Rhône-Alpes , centered on France's second city, Lyon, is one of the larger traditional regions in France, encompassing eight departments.Since 2016, it has been merged into a new larger region known as Auvergne-Rhone-Alpes. Weather Europe, Satellite Weather Europe, Weather Forecast, Rainfall, Clouds, Sun in Europe - Source: SAT24.com [108] The peaks, however, were mostly ignored except for a few notable examples, and long left to the exclusive attention of the people of the adjoining valleys. Les constats de la déclaration de Megève (24 septembre 2010) sont notamment que, « malgré une apparente abondance de la ressource en eau (Alpes du Nord), il y a émergence d’une véritable prise de conscience que la ressource est limitée, notamment dans sa répartition spatio-temporelle »[6]. [78], Human interference has nearly exterminated the trees in many areas, and, except for the beech forests of the Austrian Alps, forests of deciduous trees are rarely found after the extreme deforestation between the 17th and 19th centuries. [9][10] The term for the mountain peaks varies by nation and language: words such as Horn, Kogel, Kopf, Gipfel, Spitze, Stock, and Berg are used in German speaking regions; Mont, Pic, Tête, Pointe, Dent, Roche, and Aiguille in French speaking regions; and Monte, Picco, Corno, Punta, Pizzo, or Cima in Italian speaking regions. Il note que ces écoles étaient faites par des instituteurs payés par plusieurs familles, les enfants se regroupant dans une des maisons du village ; les personnes qui faisaient office d'instituteur étaient souvent aussi notaires et écrivain public, et allaient souvent en plaine proposer leurs services aux populations locales, moins lettrées. [64], The Alps are split into five climatic zones, each with different vegetation. [37] Flysch deposits in the Southern Alps of Lombardy probably occurred in the Cretaceous or later. The cinnabar deposits in Slovenia are a notable source of cinnabar pigments. Populaire. [36] Similarly the peaks in eastern Switzerland extending to western Austria (Helvetic nappes) consist of thin-skinned sedimentary folding that detached from former basement rock. Votre offre HRS . The lowest of the Alpine passes at 985 m (3,232 ft), the Semmering crosses from Lower Austria to Styria; since the 12th century when a hospice was built there, it has seen continuous use. HAMC World Map. De Graciansky, Pierre-Charles et al. [6] The term may be common to Italo-Celtic, because the Celtic languages have terms for high mountains derived from alp[citation needed]. The Alpine zone, extending from tree line to snow line, is followed by the glacial zone, which covers the glaciated areas of the mountain. Temperature Outlook for Europe. The first British Mont Blanc ascent was in 1788; the first female ascent in 1819. [107], Radiocarbon-dated charcoal placed around 50,000 years ago was found in the Drachloch (Dragon's Hole) cave above the village of Vattis in the canton of St. Gallen, proving that the high peaks were visited by prehistoric people. Play chess live or against computer. [150], Some high mountain villages are car free either because of inaccessibility or by choice. souhaitée] que le massif des Alpes, en forme de croissant, commence côté sud-ouest en Italie, au col … [57] The Rhine originates in a 30 km2 (12 sq mi) area in Switzerland and represents almost 60% of water exported from the country. [16], The highest portion of the range is divided by the glacial trough of the Rhône valley, from Mont Blanc to the Matterhorn and Monte Rosa on the southern side, and the Bernese Alps on the northern. L'Afrique du Nord et le Proche-Orient apparaissent aussi sur la carte. France [04] Alpes de Haute Provence. Vosges. Dialects are common, and vary from valley to valley and region to region. Furthermore, the decrease of glaciated areas combined with a succession of winters with lower-than-expected precipitation may have a future impact on the rivers in the Alps as well as an effect on the water availability to the lowlands. [126][127][128], Austrian-born Adolf Hitler had a lifelong romantic fascination with the Alps and by the 1930s established a home at Berghof, in the Obersalzberg region outside of Berchtesgaden. The mean height of the mountain peaks is 2.5 km (1.6 mi). 51 nouveaux projets soutenus par le FEDER et le FSE en Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Du 4 au 18 décembre 2021, les membres des comités de programmation des fonds européens FEDER/FSE pour les territoires d’Auvergne et de Rhône-Alpes ont été consultés par voie dématérialisée sur l’ensemble des projets présélectionnés au titre des programmes opérationnels. [30] The Tethys was later squeezed between colliding plates causing the formation of mountain ranges called the Alpide belt, from Gibraltar through the Himalayas to Indonesia—a process that began at the end of the Mesozoic and continues into the present. Version Internet en ligne de l'Atlas physique de l'Europe créé par Euratlas. With the opening of the 57.1 km-long (35.5 mi) Gotthard Base Tunnel on June 1, 2016 it bypasses the Gotthard Tunnel built in the 19th century and realizes the first flat route through the Alps. In 1798 he established the Helvetic Republic in Switzerland; two years later he led an army across the St. Bernard pass and conquered almost all of the Alpine regions.[105]. Elle a œuvré pour qu'un outil juridique international unique puisse faciliter la mise en place de politiques de développement durable sur l'ensemble des Alpes. Les politiques de protection de l'environnement et de développement durable diffèrent donc en fonction des territoires alpins. France. [13] The Rhône is second to the Nile as a freshwater source to the Mediterranean Sea; the river begins as glacial meltwater, flows into Lake Geneva, and from there to France where one of its uses is to cool nuclear power plants. Explications : Cette carte montre les températures sous abri en temps-réel des stations … The Raetians lived in the eastern regions, while the west was occupied by the Helvetii and the Allobrogi settled in the Rhône valley and in Savoy. The most common bird is the alpine chough which can be found scavenging at climber's huts or at the Jungfraujoch, a high altitude tourist destination. Subscribe to our Newsletter. [114] In the 18th century four Chamonix men almost made the summit of Mont Blanc but were overcome by altitude sickness and snowblindness. Origanum vulgare, Prunella vulgaris, Solanum nigrum and Urtica dioica are some of the more useful medicinal species found in the Alps. Among the many substances Celtic tribes mined was salt in areas such as Salzburg in Austria where evidence of the Hallstatt culture was found by a mine manager in the 19th century. [95] The Celts were the most widespread of the mountain tribes—they had warriors that were strong, tall and fair skinned, and skilled with iron weapons, which gave them an advantage in warfare. Megève (Rhône-Alpes) Hotel Mont Blanc. Aster des Alpes (Aster alpinus), à 2 500 mètres d'altitude, Haute Maurienne. Europe; North America; South America; world Europe France Rhone-Alpes Haute-Savoie. Italie. [30], The formation of the Alps (the Alpine orogeny) was an episodic process that began about 300 million years ago. You can now find the best skiing conditions at any given time. Provence - French Riviera: … Union Internationale des Associations d'Alpinisme, Almabtrieb, Alpabzug, Alpabfahrt, Désalpes, December 13, 1916 Marmolada-mountain-avalanche, January 13, 2016 Les-Deux-Alpes avalanche, "Le Mont-Blanc passe de 4.810 mètres à 4.808,7 mètres", http://www.alpconv.org/en/convention/smallbites/thealps/default.html, Die Alpen: Hydrologie und Verkehrsübergänge (German), "Was die Tunnelbauer im Gotthard antrafen", "The 4000ers of the Alps: Official UIAA List", http://www.seismo.ethz.ch/en/knowledge/earthquake-country-switzerland/earthquakes-and-the-alps/, http://www.seismo.ethz.ch/static/100j/snapshot05/sn05_gal3_EN.html, "100-year mass changes in the Swiss Alps linked to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation", "Atlantic influence on spring snowfall over the Alps in the past 150 years". Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes. [34], Under extreme compressive stresses and pressure, marine sedimentary rocks were uplifted, creating characteristic recumbent folds, or nappes, and thrust faults. Centre ville 0.24 km Gare 39.09 km Aéroport 40.92 km. Les deux plus grandes villes du massif sont Grenoble (France), aire urbaine de plus de 600 000 habitants, et Innsbruck (Autriche), agglomération de plus de 190 000 habitants, deux villes considérées comme étant, l'une pour les Français, l'autre pour les Autrichiens, capitale des Alpes. The largest city within the Alps is the city of Grenoble in France. After a series of battles fought in the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries, more cantons joined the confederacy and by the 16th century Switzerland was well-established as a separate state. Scorpions can be found in the Italian Alps. souhaitée]. Carte Rhône - Carte et plan détaillé Rhône Vous recherchez la carte ou le plan Rhône et de ses environs ? The Frankish expansion of the Carolingian Empire and the Bavarian expansion in the eastern Alps introduced feudalism and the building of castles to support the growing number of dukedoms and kingdoms. Dans ce cadre, des scientifiques coopèrent avec des gestionnaires d’espaces protégés, des décideurs, des représentants du monde agricole, du tourisme et des usagers de la montagne des cinq dispositifs sentinelles déjà mis en place (ORCHAMP[9], Alpages sentinelles, Lacs sentinelles, Refuges sentinelles et le réseau de conservation de la flore Alpes-Ain)[10]. La preuve avec le nouveau programme Plastic origins pour cartographier les déchets des fleuves et rivières en France [134] Farming and forestry continue to be mainstays of Alpine culture, industries that provide for export to the cities and maintain the mountain ecology. Switzerland and Liechtenstein were the only countries to avoid Axis takeover. The effect of mountain chains on prevailing winds is to carry warm air belonging to the lower region into an upper zone, where it expands in volume at the cost of a proportionate loss of temperature, often accompanied by precipitation in the form of snow or rain. On June 1, 2016 the world's longest railway tunnel, the Gotthard Base Tunnel was opened, which connects Erstfeld in canton of Uri with Bodio in canton of Ticino by two single tubes of 57.1 km (35.5 mi). Popularly gathered as food, the snails are now protected. With a summit of 2,469 m (8,100 ft), the Great St. Bernard Pass is one of the highest in the Alps, crossing the Italian-Swiss border east of the Pennine Alps along the flanks of Mont Blanc. Artemisia glacialis(Génépi des glaciers), Haute Maurienne. Europe. [91], In 1991 a mummy of a neolithic body, known as Ötzi the Iceman, was discovered by hikers on the Similaun glacier. Il aura fallu 40 ans pour que ce traité international voie le jour. Austria underwent a political coup that made it part of the Third Reich; France had been invaded and Italy was a fascist regime. France. l'Europe. Michelin itineraries for all over the … Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur is the most popular holiday region in the south of France. The first president of the Alpine Club, John Ball, is considered the discoverer of the Dolomites, which for decades were the focus of climbers like Paul Grohmann, Michael Innerkofler and Angelo Dibona. Dotées de nombreux sommets dépassant les 4 000 mètres d’altitude, source de plusieurs cours d’eau majeurs du continent, soumises à l’influence de climats très Cette carte détaille les différentes voies navigables existantes en fonction de leur gabarit, dans l'Europe entière, ainsi que la localisation des principaux ports fluviaux de commerce. Europe. Les Alpes proprement dites s’étendent sur un millier de kilomètres, entre Gênes et Vienne, avec une largeur comprise entre 100 et 400 kilomètres. [111] The glaciers remained a mystery and many still believed the highest areas to be inhabited by dragons. 98 years later followed Gotthard Road Tunnel (16.9 km (10.5 mi) long) connecting the A2 motorway in Göschenen on the German-Swiss side with Airolo on the Italian-Swiss side, exactly like the railway tunnel. Related Maps: Climate outlook for Precipitation and Soil MoisturePrecipitation and Soil Moisture Photos & … La flore alpine est largement gouvernée par l'altitude, et dans une moindre mesure l'exposition et la latitude. Austria is bordered by 8 countries: by Czech Republic in the north; by Slovakia in the northeast; by Hungary in the east; by Slovenia in the south, by Italy in the southwest; by Switzerland and Liechtenstein … Show map. In 2007 the new 34.57 km-long (21.48 mi) Lötschberg Base Tunnel was opened, which circumvents the 100 years older Lötschberg Tunnel. [13][55][56] Water from the rivers is used in over 500 hydroelectricity power plants, generating as much as 2900 GWh[clarification needed] of electricity. Le massif des Alpes est un ensemble montagneux qui s'étend sur plus d'un millier de kilomètres, d'Italie jusqu'en en Autriche.Il est partagé par huit pays : l'Italie, la France, Monaco, la Suisse, l'Autriche, le Liechtenstein, l'Allemagne, et la Slovénie.. Il est communément admis [réf. La surface des Alpes (190 959 km2) est partagée entre l'Autriche (28,5 %), l'Italie (27,2 %), la France (20,7 %), la Suisse (14 %), l'Allemagne (5,6 %), la Slovénie (4 %) et les deux micro-États que sont le Liechtenstein et Monaco[12]. [31], The core regions of the Alpine orogenic belt have been folded and fractured in such a manner that erosion created the characteristic steep vertical peaks of the Swiss Alps that rise seemingly straight out of the foreland areas. Carte Tx prov. The 18th and 19th centuries saw an influx of naturalists, writers, and artists, in particular, the Romantics, followed by the golden age of alpinism as mountaineers began to ascend the peaks. By the mid-1850s Swiss mountaineers had ascended most of the peaks and were eagerly sought as mountain guides. [27] Many of the big Alpine three-thousanders were climbed in the early 19th century, notably the Grossglockner (1800) and the Ortler (1804), although some of them were climbed only much later, such at Mont Pelvoux (1848), Monte Viso (1861) and La Meije (1877). Carte des stations de ski; Les meilleures stations; Comparateur de stations; Stations en France; News & reportages. [87], A number of species of moths live in the Alps, some of which are believed to have evolved in the same habitat up to 120 million years ago, long before the Alps were created. Cartes et Plans 840 . In mid-June cows are moved to the highest pastures close to the snowline, where they are watched by herdsmen who stay in the high altitudes often living in stone huts or wooden barns during the summers. The Latin word Alpes could possibly come from the adjective albus[5] ("white"), which could possibly come from the Greek goddess Alphito, whose name is related to alphita, the "white flour"; alphos, a dull white leprosy; and finally the Proto-Indo-European word alphos. The Barrière de l'Esseillon is a series of forts with heavy batteries, built on a cliff with a perfect view on the valley, a gorge on one side and steep mountains on the other side. [71], Above the forestry, there is often a band of short pine trees (Pinus mugo), which is in turn superseded by Alpenrosen, dwarf shrubs, typically Rhododendron ferrugineum (on acid soils) or Rhododendron hirsutum (on alkaline soils). [46], In the Miocene Epoch the mountains underwent severe erosion because of glaciation,[34] which was noted in the mid-19th century by naturalist Louis Agassiz who presented a paper proclaiming the Alps were covered in ice at various intervals—a theory he formed when studying rocks near his Neuchâtel home which he believed originated to the west in the Bernese Oberland. News. [124], By the mid-19th century scientists began to arrive en masse to study the geology and ecology of the region. His first visit to the area was in 1923 and he maintained a strong tie there until the end of his life. [12] The range stretches from the Mediterranean Sea north above the Po basin, extending through France from Grenoble, and stretching eastward through mid and southern Switzerland. Le plus haut sommet des Pyrénées, l’Aneto, atteint 3 404 mètres d’altitude et le Mont Blanc, dans les Alpes françaises culmine à une altitude de 4 807 mètres. Val-d'Europe-Serris-Mon. Dein HRS Angebot. Digne. [26] The list includes not only mountains, but also subpeaks with little prominence that are considered important mountaineering objectives. Europe. Ouverture stations . En 2016-2017, un « Projet Sentinelles des Alpes » vise à élaborer, partager et intégrer avant 2020 les moyens d'observation des relations climat-homme-biodiversités à l’échelle du massif côté français. [142] From 1980 to the present, ski-lifts have been modernized and snow-making machines installed at many resorts, leading to concerns regarding the loss of traditional Alpine culture and questions regarding sustainable development as the winter ski industry continues to develop quickly and the number of summer tourists decline. Other rivers such as the Danube have major tributaries flowing into them that originate in the Alps. A number of airports around the Alps (and some within), as well as long-distance rail links from all neighbouring countries, afford large numbers of travellers easy access. Data Pays Toutes les données. From his description of a "blue like that of a gentian" sky it is thought that he reached a significantly high altitude. carte administrative. A rise from sea level into the upper regions of the atmosphere causes the temperature to decrease (see adiabatic lapse rate). EU Annual Regional and Local Barometer; Political priorities 2020–2025; Plenary sessions; Bureau; Conference of Presidents; Opinions; Territorial Impact Assessment (TIA) Commissions. [96], During the Second Punic War in 218 BC, the Carthaginian general Hannibal probably crossed the Alps with an army numbering 38,000 infantry, 8,000 cavalry, and 37 war elephants. Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, positioned in southeast France, bordering Italy, Monaco and the Mediterranean Sea, is the most famous tourist destinations in all of France. Oui.sncf is the official European distribution channel of the French railways (SNCF) for online sales of high-speed and conventional rail travel throughout France and Europe: plan your journeys, book your train tickets and get inspired by our travel guides! Dein HRS Angebot. [116] By the 19th century more naturalists began to arrive to explore, study and conquer the high peaks. Schiller later wrote the play William Tell (1804), which tells the story the legendary Swiss marksman William Tell as part of the greater Swiss struggle for independence from the Habsburg Empire in the early 14th century. Les Alpes font partie des chaînes alpines péri-téthysiennes, formées pendant le Mésozoïque (−252 à −66 Ma) et le Cénozoïque (depuis −66 Ma), qui s’étendent du Maghreb à l’Extrême-Orient. Now the pass has been supplanted by the Fréjus Highway Tunnel (opened 1980) and Rail Tunnel (opened 1871). For instance, the Sarca, the primary inflow of Lake Garda, originates in the Italian Alps. [86] The high-altitude Alpine salamanders have adapted to living above the snow line by giving birth to fully developed young rather than laying eggs. [38], According to geologist Stefan Schmid, because the Western Alps underwent a metamorphic event in the Cenozoic Era while the Austroalpine peaks underwent an event in the Cretaceous Period, the two areas show distinct differences in nappe formations. [137], In the high villages people live in homes built according to medieval designs that withstand cold winters. Snow forecast map for Alps showing snow accumulation over the next 10 days and past 7 days, plus snow reports, live weather conditions and webcams. Carte Hautes Alpes. 9/13. Les experts réunis lors de ces états généraux ont alerté que les Alpes risquent de ne plus pouvoir jouer leur rôle de « château d'eau de l'Europe »[5]. A mummified man, determined to be 5,000 years old, was discovered on a glacier at the Austrian–Italian border in 1991. From the Colle di Cadibona to Col de Tende it runs westwards, before turning to the northwest and then, near the Colle della Maddalena, to the north. Edward Whymper reached the top of the Matterhorn in 1865 (after seven attempts), and in 1938 the last of the six great north faces of the Alps was climbed with the first ascent of the Eiger Nordwand (north face of the Eiger). [47], Alpine glaciers can be straight rivers of ice, long sweeping rivers, spread in a fan-like shape (Piedmont glaciers), and curtains of ice that hang from vertical slopes of the mountain peaks. Achetez Montagnes 1926 d'Alpes d'Innsbruck Autriche de Carte l'Europe: Amazon.fr Livraison & retours gratuits possibles (voir conditions) All our snow information is constantly updating, making these pages ideal for ski enthusiasts to find the best snow conditions. [12], The areas that are not arid and receive high precipitation experience periodic flooding from rapid snowmelt and runoff. France Montagnes est l'association regroupant les principaux acteurs du tourisme de montagne en France afin de promouvoir la destination et ses bienfaits à l'échelle nationale et internationale. Chocard à bec jaune, Pyrrhocorax graculus. Hells Angels MC World. Destinations De Voyage. 10/13. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the Latin Alpes might possibly derive from a pre-Indo-European word *alb "hill"; "Albania" is a related derivation. Bien guidés vraiment libres ! The Lauberhorn is the more strenuous downhill race at 4.5 km (2.8 mi) and poses danger to racers who reach 130 km/h (81 mph) within seconds of leaving the start gate. [65], Various models of climate change have been projected into the 22nd century for the Alps, with an expectation that a trend toward increased temperatures will have an effect on snowfall, snowpack, glaciation, and river runoff. [82] Areas of the eastern Alps are still home to brown bears. Timbres, pièces de monnaie et billets, cartes postales ou autres objets de collection, ils sont tous sur Delcampe ! [37], Peaks in France, Italy and Switzerland lie in the "Houillière zone", which consists of basement with sediments from the Mesozoic Era. Andorre. Blue butterflies can commonly be seen drinking from the snow melt; some species of blues fly as high as 1,800 m (5,900 ft). Catégorie sponsorisée par In some areas the modern practice of building ski runs by mechanical means has destroyed the underlying tundra from which the plant life cannot recover during the non-skiing months, whereas areas that still practice a natural piste type of ski slope building preserve the fragile underlayers. Aperçu : ski dans les Alpes Luca Ermini et al., "Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Tyrolean Iceman,", Die Besteigung der Berge - Die Dolomitgipfel werden erobert (German: The ascent of the mountains - the dolomite peaks are conquered), Cahier d'architecture Haute Maurienne/Vanoise, "What Role Do the Alps Play within World Tourism? Limitrophes des départements de la Drôme, de l’Isère et de la Savoie, et faisant partie de la région Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur, le département des Hautes … The Mont Cenis pass has been a major commercial and military road between Western Europe and Italy. The stress of the movement causes the ice to break and crack loudly, perhaps explaining why the mountains were believed to be home to dragons in the medieval period. [9] The plants that grow at the highest altitudes have adapted to conditions by specialization such as growing in rock screes that give protection from winds. (2011). In his commentary on the Aeneid of Vergil, the late fourth-century grammarian Maurus Servius Honoratus says that all high mountains are called Alpes by Celts. "High altitude biodiversity of the Alps and the Himalayas: ethnobotany, plant distribution and conservation perspective". [99] The Romans built settlements in the Alps; towns such as Aosta (named for Augustus) in Italy, Martigny and Lausanne in Switzerland, and Partenkirchen in Bavaria show remains of Roman baths, villas, arenas and temples.